History of antipervoskite
We provide an analysis of the advancement of work into antipervoskite materials ‘ theoretical magnetic properties. The antiperovskite compounds have a pervoskites-type structure and are substituted by anions and cations.
Most compounds are expected to have a perovskite type structure, the cations are A and B, and anion is X. The X atoms are 12-fold in symmetry at the center of the cell unit, the A atom in the middle and the B atom at the unit cell side alley. X atoms also form an octahedral and add A to the corners and B to the centers of the face atoms. His name is Russian Lev Perovskite mineralogist, Gustav Rose found the first perovskites (CaTiO3). Pervoskites has another type of antiperovskites such as simple pervoskites KMnF3 (Karki et al., 2009) and SrTiO3 (Karen et al., 1971) SrTiO3 (Payne et al., 1992).
Inversely of pervoskites (Payne et al., 1992) and dual (antiperovskite (Na6FCl (SO4)2)) based on art works and composition of the fundamental elements of substance, in pervoskites (Eu3O)sn and (Eu3O) and double in pervoskites. Different structures including cubic, orthorhombic, tetragonal, rhomboidal, and hexagonal are formed in all these forms (Segall et al., 2002).
Inorganic compounds with a perovskite type structure and cations exchange position (Bannikov et al., 2010) are antiperovskite materials. The simplest cubic antiperovskite configuration (SnNNi3) and Pm-3 m space group (221) is illustrated by Figure 2.1. Antiperovskites have gained substantial interest in the last ten years for their utility in various industrial applications (Bannikov et al., 2010). One of the main reasons of their industrial use is a large number of band differences. Antiperovskites have wide-range solution ability because of the strong thermoelectrical properties of these compounds. Waste heat is converted directly into electricity in thermoelectric. Researchers are investigating materials for thermo-electric generators in order to achieve high efficiency. Effective thermoelectrically, but are not sufficient for a fairly high conductivity, usually has big band gaps enough for a large see beck factor (Zhu et al., 2009).
The antiperovskite content group consists of these types of compounds consisting of different technologies, which include metals, insulators, semiconductors and superconductors. Solids with strong ion behavior presume that the organic electrolytes are more (Ashcroft et al., 1976) and therefore, lithium-based antiperovskites can also act as solid batteries of electrolytes. Such compounds have great physical properties, (Heine, 1980) such as GMR (Giant magneto resistance) in (Engel et al., 1994). These features create highly useful antiperovskite systems, such as GMR, used for hard drive, biosensor, MMS and many others in magnetic field sensors. In addition to these uses, anti-perovskites also have outstanding mechanical properties, making it possible to support vehicles and space technology, because on the one hand, in this field, on the other side, we require beam weight materials that have a high mechanical strength. Superconductivity is also found in anti-perovskites. MgCNi3 was reported for superconductivity below 8 K in 2001 in the first antiperovskite substance (Li et al., 1991). This discovery opened new information about the antiperovskite families in the field of research. Scientists also demonstrate superconductivity in other compounds, such as ZnNNi3 and CdCNi3. In fact, in antiperovskites of various magnetic properties and temperatures of change magnetism is one of the most important characteristics. Such materials are extremely good for memorial and sensor applications and are ideal for spintronic applications due to their strong magnetic effect. In addition they are good candidates for optical appliances because of the small band gaps in many antiperovskites. The literature available on these compounds indicates that world researchers are deeply interested in antiperovskite magnetic properties. The material’s electrical characteristics heavily influence other physical properties such as thermoelectric, magnetic, electric, and mechanical characteristics. Minute electronic structural differences cause tremendous changes in these characteristics. Material density and band structures for their consumption in thermoelectrical, optical and memory storage applications is therefore important to understand (Kohn et al., 1965).
Because of their various applications in telecommunications, robotics and military systems, Group (II-A) components are very significant (Skorodumova et al., 2005). We have two electrons in their ultra-peripheral shell which make ionic bonds in general easily moved. The unit cell formation octahedral coordination is based around a number of antiperovskite materials that have a group (II-A) dimension. In order to better understand their behavior in other physical properties, various researchers are therefore theoretically looking at the electronic properties such as the band structures and densities of these materials say. AsNCa3, BiNCa3 and PNCa3 structural and electronic featuresdepending on pressure have been studied using LDA. Materials from anti-perovskites have received tremendous research attention. Uehara et al. (2009) were MgXNi3 electronic features (X = B, C, N) were investigated. At (mgCNi3) with a Ni-3d leading element the Ni-3d and C-2p states form an anti-binding sub strand close to Fermi level. The electronic structure of the ZnCNi3 was tested (Rosner et al., 2001). In comparison to MgCNi3, the authors note that ZnCNi3 has no superconductivity, only the absence of modest Mg in this substance can be clarified. The composition, electrical, and magnetic conditions of the antiperovskite material InCNi3 was studied by Okoye et al. (2010) used LDA and GGA, Hou et al. (2010) stated that the substance is paramagnetic between states Ni-3d and C-2p for heavy hybridization. InNCo3 is ferromagnetic because InNNi3 is non-magnetic at ground level because of its varying strength to hybridize N-Co atoms with 2p-3d in InNCo3 and N-Ni atoms in InNNi3. The hybridized Ni-3d and N-2p are the highest states near the Fermi stages, while C components are given very little. Nevertheless, this slight input of elements C induces a slight shift to the Fermi belt and contributes to ZnNNi3 activity
at K while the two other compounds are superconductive (Helal et al., 2011).
Figure 2.1: Simple unit cell structure of cubic antipervoskite with the space group Pm3m (221) gray atoms at the corner and blue atoms at the body center are anion while the face center blue atoms are cation (Shein et al., 2010).