Morphology of MnO2 Nanowires

Morphology of MnO2 Nanowires

                 Elemental composition, morphologies, and structures of prepared manganese oxide (MnO2) nanowires were investigated by using SEM (Scanning electron microscope). (Figure 4.7) shows the SEM images of synthesized manganese oxide (MnO2) nanowires and nano-flowers. These (MnO2) nanowires were an ultra-fine shape with insignificant agglomerations and having diameters in the range of 12-48 nm. SEM images confirm the formation of manganese oxide (MnO2) nanowires and nano-flowers (Rajamanickam  et al., 2014).

 CHAPTER 01

                                                                                                      INTRODUCTION         

1.1 Background of the Study

‘                       Learning Style’ has been defined by various scholars mostly as a signal for individual differences. These differences may manifest itself in ‘life styles’ and even in personality types (Zhang & Sternberg 2005). Kolb (1984) and Honey and Mumford (1992) describe learning style as an individual preferred or habitual ways of processing and transforming knowledge. According to Kolb (1984), psychological attributes, resulted from individual differences, determine the particular strategies a person chooses while learning. On the other hand, Keefe (1987) emphasizes learning styles as cognitive, affective, and psychological traits that serve as relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment. Moreover, Dunn and Dunn (1986) hold that each individual’s concentration on, mental processes, internalization and retain of new and difficult information stem from his specific learning style.

            The level of learning achieved by a learner is one of the most important factors which indicate the success of a learning environment. In order to ensure the effectiveness of teaching environments, it is important to take account of characteristics, abilities and experience of learners as individuals or as a group when beginning to plan a learning environment (Kemp, Morrison, Ross, 1998).

            It is important for the effectiveness of teaching environments to take account of group or individual learners’ characteristics, competence and experiences (pre-learning) throughout the process of planning learning environments (Kemp, Morrison, Ross, 1998). Though all human beings have common bio-psychological and social characteristics in learning process, individual preferences concerning the ways of giving meaning and acquiring information may vary. Even identical twins who share the same environment may give meaning in different ways the phenomena and events which have common characteristics. All information which becomes the subjective life of an individual after giving meaning process may have individual-specific differences in ensuring permanence of learning and remembering. One of these individual-specific differences is the learning style which is the topic of this study.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

            The study was conducted to examine the effect of learning environments on achievement in different learning environments and the effect of learning styles on the success of individuals in various learning environments, within the framework of Mayer’s information processing and Kolb’s perception and organization ideas.

1.3 Research Objectives

  1. The principal objective of the research presented in the study was to find out effect of learning style on their achievements.
  2. The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of learning styles on students’ achievement in different learning environments.

1.4 Research Questions

            In this study the effect of learning environments on achievement in different learning environments are examined; and the responses to following questions are sought for in this context:

  1. What is the effect of learning styles on success in a text-based learning environment?
  2. What is the effect of learning styles on success in a narration-based learning environment?
  3. What is the effect of learning styles on success in a computer-mediated (narration + music + text + static picture) learning environment?

1.5 Significance of the Study

            Given the limited research done on Effect of Learning Style on Achievement of Students at Elementary Level in Rawalakot. The study was helpful to examine the effect of learning environments on achievement in different learning environments and the effect of learning styles on the success of individuals in various learning environments,

1.6 Scope and Limitations of the study

            Three different learning environments are designed within the scope of this study. The characteristics of learning styles and the details concerning the data collection process. As the study was descriptive in nature therefore the study was limited to a three questionnaire that was developed for the whole participants of the research study.

1.7 Delimitation of the study

            The research group of the study was delimited to the selected 39 students from the Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology.

1.8 Research methodology

1.8.1 Population

            The research group of the study was composed of 39 from the Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology. A pre and post-test was designed consists of 30 multiple choices questions to define effectiveness of the learning environments. The alpha reliability coefficient of the test was found as .54, validity of the test was found as .53.

1.8.2 Sampling Technique

The sampling technique used was the random sampling method.

1.8.3 Sample

            The sample size was only 39 from the Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology including 30 items concerning the behaviors to be gained in three different learning environments and Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory are used to collect data.

1.8.4 Research Instrument

              In this study pre-post-tests including 30 items concerning the behaviors to be gained in three different learning environments and Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory are used to collect data.

1.8.5 Data Collection

              The researchers distributed questionnaires among the participants of the research study and data was collected.

1.8.6 Data analysis

              The data collected in this study were analysed through repeated measures of one way ANOVA test.

1.9 Operational definitions

 1.9.1 Learning Styles

              Learning styles are different ways that a person can learn. It’s commonly believed that most people favor some particular method of interacting with, taking in, and processing stimuli or information. Psychologists have proposed several complementary taxonomies of learning styles. But other psychologists and neuroscientists have questioned the scientific basis for some learning style theories.

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