REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical Framework
Educational facilities are those facilities which are provided to students, so that they can utilize every opportunity to develop full potential. Educational facilities include buildings, fixtures, and equipment necessary for the effective, successful and efficient functioning of program of public education, classrooms, libraries, rooms and space for physical education, space for fine arts, restrooms, specialized laboratories, cafeterias, media centers, building equipment, building fixtures, furnishings, related exterior facilities An educational facility may be supposed as a controlled environment that improves the instruction process while it protects the physical well-being of occupants. School planning begins with the learner, ends with learner and the building of the school should be designed in such a way that it satisfies learner physical and emotional needs and demands. The pattern of activities differs from school to school which depends upon learner’s age, local interest, customs and climatic conditions as related to the possibility of outdoor play. These differences require differences in the plant facilities (Iqbal, 2005).
It is unquestionably and indisputably acknowledged that the physical facilities purify and improve the educational process. These educational facilities are useful to promote and enhance children knowledge. Educational facility is the process of conceiving and selecting the structure, elements, materials, arrangement, and so on for a school building or facility; the plan or layout of the building (Australian Council for Educational Research, 2008).
Secondary education plays a vital and crucial role in laying the foundation for the further studies. That is why it is right to say that if a good foundation is laid at this basic stage, then students cope up with the challenges of life and profession quite easily. However, different people have pointed out various factors which are responsible for the unsatisfactory performance of the students. These factors include low retention, parental role, association and friendship with wrong peers, low achievement, lack of motivation, and many other similar factors etc. (Aremu et al., 2003).
Secondary education occupies the most important and critical position in any educational system. The position of secondary education is generally paradoxical in any society. It is expected that secondary education will play a transitional role between basic education and further (higher) education as well as to play a terminal role by providing and supplying required manpower for the development of the country (AIOU, 1998).
Secondary education is an important sub-sector of the entire education system. On the one hand, it provides middle level workers of the economy and, on the other, it acts as a feeder for the higher levels of education. The quality of higher education, which is expected to produce high quality professionals in different fields of social, economic and political life of the country, depends upon the quality of secondary education. This level of education, therefore, needs to be organized in such a way that it should prepare young men and women for the pursuit of higher education, as well as make them able to adjust with their practical lives meaningfully and productivity (AIOU, 1998). Therefore it is imperative to pay proper attention toward this sector of education. Educational facilities play a crucial role in strengthening and improving the quality of education.
There is direct relation between provision of educational facilities and overall school performance i.e. student’s performance, teacher’s performance and administrative performance, etc. There is a direct relationship between the condition and utility of school facilities and learning. Poor school facilities negatively impact teachers’ effectiveness and performance, and therefore have a negative impact on student performance.
Schools are essential institutions that require a high quality physical and social atmosphere. Conducive and favorable physical and social atmospheres can affect students’ performance positively in education (Lackney, 1999). Lackney (1999) concluded that the standard and quality of the facilities provided has a relationship with learning performance. This issue undoubtedly relates to facilities performance, particularly in classroom facilities. However, the achievement of a high quality of performance for the facilities provided depends on the organization’s activities and core business. The provision of effective and efficient facilities will assist the organization to attain its goals and objectives.
School facility factors such as building age and condition, quality of maintenance, temperature, lighting, noise, color, and air quality can have impacts on student health, safety, sense of self and psychological state. Research has also revealed that the quality of facilities influences citizen perceptions of schools and can serve as a point of community pride and increased support for public education (Tennessee Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, 2003). Students really spend most of their school time within classrooms (Stockard et al., 1992). For that reason, the classroom atmosphere is imperative in influencing students’ attitudes toward school as well as their attainment in attending and learning (Fung et al., 2005).
In addition, recent research studies concerning school facilities performance and student’s attendance and learning performance mostly concentrate on classrooms (Lackney, 1999; Fung, 2005). This clearly shows that the facilities which have the greatest influence on students’ attendance and learning performance/ outcomes are in the classroom. Leung & Fung (2005) claim that improving facilities in schools will enhance students’ learning. Changes in the components of facility management are significantly related to changes in the learning behaviors of students. According to Earthman (2002), school facilities are playing a crucial role in strengthening and improving teacher effectiveness and student performance. Older facilities had problems with noise level and thermal environment. Therefore, the age of school buildings is playing an important and crucial part in students’ performance. The quality of the learning atmosphere is known to affect teacher behavior and attitudes toward continuing to teach. It is unreasonable to expect positive results from programs that have to function in negative physical atmosphere (Tennessee Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, 2003).
Mbakwem et al. (2007) explained that the cumulative effect of poor facilities results in poor motivation and low morale of teachers, which result in low quality work output. Hallack (1990) stress that though available sufficient and relevant facilities promote academic attainments, unattractive and ugly school buildings, cracked classroom walls and floors, lack of or insufficient playgrounds and surroundings reduce and slow down academic attainment. Learners are not passive objects but they are active, interested and inquisitive persons. Acquisition and attainment of knowledge is a constructive or generative process and each learner’s knowledge is personal and unique. Ajayi (1995) also observed that the education system has failed to inculcate the spirit of self-reliance in the recipients because there were no equipment and tools in schools and where they were found available, they were not being utilized during teaching learning process.
Cash (1993) examined the relationship between building condition and student attainment in small, rural Virginia high schools. Student scores on achievement tests, adjusted for socioeconomic status, was found to be up to 5 percentile points lower in buildings with lower quality ratings. Achievement level was also found to be more directly related to decorative factors than to structural ones. Poorer achievement was associated with specific building condition factors such as substandard science facilities, air conditioning, locker conditions, classroom furniture, more graffiti, and noisy external environments. McGuffey (1982) arrived at the result that heating and air conditioning systems were found to be very imperative, along with particular instructional facilities (i.e., science laboratories or equipment) and colour and interior painting, in contributing to student achievement. Proper building maintenance was also found to be related to better attitudes and fewer disciplinary problems in one cited study.
2.2 Elementary Education in Pakistan
In Pakistan, educational institutions lack educational facilities which results in malfunctioning of these institutions. Poor and inadequate educational facilities affect the overall performance of the institutions. Sufficient facilities promote academic achievement and ensure to strengthen overall institutional performance. Unattractive and old school buildings, cracked classroom walls and floors, lack of toilets, lack of desk and benches, lack of transport facility, lack of proper security system, lack of drinking water, lack of power supply, lack of playgrounds, lack of teaching staff, lack of sufficient classrooms, overcrowded classrooms, lack of educational technology, lack of first aids facility, etc., negatively affect academic achievement of the institutions. Therefore, it is right to say that academic achievement has a close link with the availability of educational facilities. Therefore, this paper is designed specifically to study the availability of educational facilities at the secondary school level. The researchers are hopeful that the study on hand will be beneficial for the provision of educational facilities at the secondary school level. The researchers are also hopeful that the government will ensure the provision of educational facilities after the conduct of this study. In this way, these facilities will play a remarkable role in improving and strengthening secondary education. It will be beneficial for the overall performance of the institutions at the secondary school level (Lyons, 2001).
There is a dire need or overhauling of the present educational system, which is very defective. Education is a corner stone of development. It has proved a significant positive impact on employment, earning, productivity, health and the reduction of population growth, in short, all major aspects of development. In Pakistan our policy makers have never recognized the importance of education and there has always been a lot of rhetoric but no concrete effort in the shape of public spending. Education is a basic human right and should be considered an end in itself rather than a mean to an end. No other society can call itself civilized and no community can be a nation if a large number of its citizens are illiterate. Education provides people with the tool to raise their standard of living and break through the barriers of class. It is the basic for intellectual development and the understanding of complex world. Primary/Elementary education is foundation stone in the education system and educational structure of a country. Studies show that all the present developed countries of the west had achieved universal elementary/primary education before the advent of high rate of growth. Similarly, the great economic success stories of the 20th century countries such as Japan, Hong Kong Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan had all made considerable investment in education and achieved universal elementary/primary education. Education improves the productivity of labour and since labour in one of the factor of production that leads to an increase in output and national income. It is obvious that secondary and higher education provides skill that is vital for the functioning of economy. To achieve the targets of secondary/higher education, we must stress upon the need of elementary education. It was believed that unskilled workers didn’t need formal education and expenditure on primary/elementary education would cause money to be delivered from activities more conductive to economic growth. However from 1970s onward scholars and policy makers have came to appreciate the benefits of universal primary/elementary education. It is now recognized that primary/elementary education is vital for economic growth and property alleviation. If Pakistan wishes to join the ranks of the developed countries or to become another Asian Tiger, it will have to make a concerted effort to educate our people. Without high enrolment in primary education it is not possible to get high enrolment in secondary and higher education. This means spending at least the recommended four percent of our GNP on education and not compromising this expenditure whenever there is a resource crunch.
2.3 Productivity of Education Policies and Fie year plans
Unluckily the planning made for education policies did not become the part of our five-year development plans. Periods of education policies and Five-year plan were quite different. Importance of education did not remain the same in different periods and governments. Importance of educational department varied as compared to other department. Rupees specified in budget did not motion to meet, demands and promises. After specification of money it was never fully paid, therefore the targets of educational policies and five-year plans were never achieved. The second reason was that according to financial rules when specified money was not used till 12 p.m. of 30th June was of no use. As a result of all of this speed of education progress always remains very slow. Therefore targets of education policies and plans were not fully achieved up till now (Irfan, 1995).
According to Iqbal (2005), classroom and other common facilities can be classified as below:
- Non Classroom Facilities
- Administrative office and staff rooms
- Custodial and service facilities
- Facilities for public use
- Non Classroom Facilities
Non-classroom facilities for pupils include library, lounges, gymnasium, lunch room, activities room, lockers, and showers, outdoor faculties, dressing rooms, clothing storage facilities, rest rooms, health services rooms and other recreational facilities. These facilities are non-classroom facilities which are required for the enhancement of instructional and overall performance of the schools.
Phillips (1992) stated that the arrangement of classroom educational faculties and instructional spaces should be chosen for learning rather teaching. In addition, it should facilitate teacher in providing an atmosphere which promote the right kind of learning. Along with classrooms atmosphere, instructional aids (A.V. Aids) come under the following headings., Maps, charts, globes, and graphs; instructional motion pictures; radio and recording; mock up; computers; multimedia; overhead projectors; internet. That was one of the most important and critical physical characteristics of the classroom is lighting. The importance of proper visual environment for learning tasks deserves careful consideration. The visual environment affects the ability of learner to perceive visual stimuli and affects his/her mental attitude, and thus, performance.
Dunn et al. (1985) claimed that the lightning of a school should be regarded as an active factor of the entire educational atmosphere. He concluded that good lighting contributes considerably to the aesthetics and psychological character of the learning space. Taylor (1980) noted the side effects of poor lighting on nerve functions, hyperactivity, health, and on task behavior. Blackwell (1963) noted that the eyeball is not damaged structurally by bad lighting, either inadequate quantity or poor quality. He also noted that the effectiveness of information collection badly effected in bad light and the process of collecting information is reduced in bad and poor light. Seeing in poor lighting can lead to the development of ineffective and unproductive programming of the information collection process which may become habitual. Due to bad lighting, the atmosphere becomes discomfort.
Co-curricular activities play an important and crucial role in the development of balance personality of the child. That is why it is imperative to provide students with physical facilities for this purpose. Iqbal (2005) stated that the games are designed and planned for both instruction and enjoyment. Children, youth and adults who play, they may develop skills. Most of the games can be played in the gymnasium or on the school grounds by the available equipment and facilities. Indoor games are car-rum-board, cards, billiard, chess, table tennis, draught, badminton, luddo. These games are played in a big common room and each game has a need of various equipments. Outdoor games which are generally played in Pakistani schools are basketball, tennis, football, cricket, hockey, volleyball and kabbadi.
Zaki (1988) and Iqbal (2005) suggested the following facilities in a school building. The number of rooms depends on the facilities provided in the school. Normally each section of the class should have a separate room. School rooms can be divided into the following:
- Instruction Rooms, the classrooms and laboratories
- Non-instruction rooms as headmaster’s office, clerk’s office, staffroom, and Library rooms etc.
All these buildings should have proper system of ventilation, water supply facilities, and specially designed rooms for scientific equipments. Classroom should have sufficient number of desks or benches for the students. Similarly geography rooms should have stands; maps; cupboards and drawing rooms tables; model stand; sidings board etc. Toilets are the basic requirement of all because children spend most of their time in the school. Playgrounds are necessary for outdoor activities. In Pakistan most of the public schools have playground facilities.