Scope and Limitations of the study

Background of the Study

            Education plays an essential role in the acquisition of knowledge and skills. It is a tool which can be used to sequence the future generations to teach skills and abilities. The way a child is raised has an opposing impact not only to oneself but to the whole society. While growing up the child spends most of his time at home and the type of environment he or she is took in also obstruct their cognitive development. In order to help a child grow in good health, parents should come into the picture in determining the child’s character and surround of mind. Literature around the globe shares that the level of education which the parents have realized can also affect the child’s growth as literate parents have the ability to implant wisdom developed by them to their children. Literate and illiterate parents differ in the sense of being able to read and write and the addition of skills and knowledge of definite fields of study.    As stated by Khan, et al, (2015) education of a child needs multidimensional efforts. Students, teachers, institute and parents all have their importance in their process of learning. Parents’ education is such a vital factor for a child for his/her future. It has been shown that the children of educated parents are more confident, creative and experienced than the children whose parents with no formal education. 

            Even in the report presented by the Ministry of Education, it is stated that children of highly educated parents perform well in school than those with less educated parents. Academic performance is important to get reinforced to the next level in school and the revolving point of the lives of the students is when they get into secondary level of schooling. From that phase the students get to do well in academics in order to have a safe life by receiving registered in tertiary education. Students with high marks would not have any preventions while applying for jobs compared to their accompaniments with low marks as the first standards which the employers pursue is the marks.    

            According to Kimani et al. (2013) low academic performance especially at secondary school declines the chance to connection colleges and out at threat the chances for job position. Rabgay (2015) further statements that students who have poor academic archives would find it difficult to achieve in a good culture. Similar is the case in Bhutan since unemployed youths scrap to meet their basic needs and would be considered negatively by the society. As Dorji (2005) in his research on juvenile delinquency found that side-lined youths are stressed to ingest, action and live in a alike way to those of their colleagues of superior position. As they being rundown, it becomes tougher for them to strive with those who are well off. He additional states that this results in stress and tension of deficient to shine others. The only choice for them is to remedy to unlawful networks such as stealing and forceful bribery to some level. After getting the clear picture of the long term effects of students not doing well in schools, the only solution which can be approved is parents. Parents have to be hardworking to keep their children away from such activities. The general summary of the parent-student refinements is that the parental educational levels effect their children’s academic achievement. Past research has shown clearly that parental control of a college degree hints to higher incomes, higher educational fulfilment, and a choice of more selective colleges for their children (Gruca et al., 1989).as cited by Gooding (2001). Many researchers do suggest that there is a relationship between the level of education of parents and the academic achievement of the parents. The role of parents is really vast not only on educating their children but also coaching them to be a well human being.

1.2 Statement of the problem

            Education of the parents play an essential part on determining the beliefs, behaviour and actions of their children. Parents’ educational background can pose a positive and negative expectations from student’s performance. The purpose of this study was to discover the influences of parental educational level on student’s achievement at secondary school level. The study was conducted to gain an understanding of the impact that different parental educational levels have on dependent variable which was student’s achievements.

1.3 Research Objectives

The objectives of the study were

  1. To study the relation between the educational levels of parents on the academic performance of their children.
  2. Determine the level of academic performance among the secondary school students measured by their grades scored in the school.
  3. Find out the relationship between the parents’ literacy and the academic performance of their children.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Does the educational background of the parent’s effect the academic performance of their children? 
  2. Is there a relation between the educational background of the parents and children’s academic performance?  
  3. How parent’s academic background influence the student’s achievement at school?

1.5 Significance of the Study 

            Given the limited research done on the influence of parents’ educational level on their children’s academic achievement in Rawalakot, this study has a possible value in learning the parents-children underlying forces. This study will contribute to govern the likely factor affecting the academic success of the students in school.

1.6 Scope and Limitations of the study

Owed to the setting of the research being directed, it would not be applied simplify it to the whole population. The scores of the students were built on their responses and its strength is negligible. Due to the small sample size, it may be difficult to find significant relationships from the data. The small sample size may not confirm a correct typical supply of the population. As specified previous the factors disturbing the academic achievement of the children have been limited to only one factor which is the educational qualifications whereas many researchers have included many factors defining children’s academic success.

1.7 Delimitation of the study

            The study was limited to student’s academic performance among secondary school students in Rwalakot.It has the highest number of both private and public secondary schools.

1.8 Research methodology

1.8.1 Population

            The target population comprised of government secondary school students residing in the Rawalakot AJK. Different secondary school were chosen for this study. The main rationale behind selecting government secondary schools was to find out if the government selected students’ performance have any relation with their parents’ level of education. 

1.8.2 Sampling Technique

The sampling technique used was the random sampling method

1.8.3 Sample

              The sample size was run through the random sampling size calculator and with a 90% confidence level; the sample size required was 219. As mentioned in the questionnaire that the participation is voluntary, the response rate was 83.39%. This study accumulates the responses from 175 respondents.

1.8.4 Research Instrument

            My research engaged the quantitative approach with a survey questionnaire to get numerical data (statistics) from respondents. Two sets of survey questionnaires were given to the primary respondents (students) and to their parents. This was done to get the complete information about the study and to triangulate the data for further vision in the study. A total of 24 questions for were set and responses were based on the five point Likert scale ranging from 1- strongly disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neutral, 4-agree and 5-strongly agree.

1.8.5 Data Collection

              The primary data was collected through self-constructed questionnaire and a total of 240 questionnaires were distributed which mainly consist of choosing the right from the options give and filling up the Likert scale responses. As mentioned earlier only 175 responded and all the questions were filled up as there were no complicated questions. 

1.8.6 Data analysis

              The data collected from the different High School students were punched in Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) to generate cross tabulation between the required variables. And then it was imported to Microsoft excel for the graphical representation and tabulation of the data. The imported data were coded and labelled with the requirement of the study. Correlation is what was done for the study as the main purpose of the study was to figure out the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

1.9 Operational definitions

1.9.1 Academic Achievement

It is the end result of the efforts exerted by the students. It represents outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals.

1.9.2 Grade

              A particular level of rank, quality, proficiency or value

1.9.3 Parent’s literacy

Parent’s literacy is the extent to which one possesses the knowledge, skills and emotional disposition that are conducive to raising healthy, happy, intelligent, spiritual and socially adept children.

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