The present study was conducted to investigate the availability of educational facilities in Poonch region

            The study was conducted to Analysis of elementary education facilities in some areas of Poonch Region. For this purpose data collected from many secondary schools in Rawalakot through questionnaire. Data was collected through personal visits and after collection of data; it was organized, tabulated, analysed and interpreted. Percentage was used for the statistical treatment of the data in order to draw the results. Results shows that majority of the educational facilities are not available in the institutions at secondary school level.

5.2 FINDINGS

After analysis of the data, it was found that:

  1. It was investigated in the study that majority of the educational facilities were not properly available in the institutions at secondary level.
  2. It was revealed in the study that there were not available specially designed rooms for library, scientific equipments and educational technologies.
  3. As it was found that the room heating and air conditioning facilities were not available in the schools which are obstacles in effective teaching learning process in winter and summer.
  4. It was found that transport facility was not available both for students and teachers.
  5. It was investigated in the research study that facility of drinkable water inside the schools was not available.
  6. It was found that toilets for students were not available in these institutions.

5.3 DISCUSSION

            The present study was conducted to investigate the availability of educational facilities in Poonch region. Data was collected through personal visits and after collection of data; it was organized, tabulated, analysed and interpreted. Percentage was used for the statistical treatment of the data in order to draw the results. Majority of the educational facilities are not available in the institutions at secondary school level. It clearly shows that educational facilities i.e., office computer; computer laboratory; facility of drinkable water inside the school; room heaters; gas facility; air conditioned classrooms and gymnasium are not available in educational institutions at secondary school level.

5.4 CONCLUSION

            Majority of the educational facilities are not available in the institutions at secondary school level. These educational facilities include; office computer; computer laboratory; facility of drinkable water inside the school; air conditioned classrooms; room heaters; gas facility; transport facility; toilet for students; telephone facility; internet facility; playground; specially designed room for library; sports room; room for technologies; proper security arrangement facility; power generators facility; examination hall; first aid facility; staff for laboratory; dispensary; mosque; canteen; rest rooms and gymnasium. Availability of some educational facilities was found satisfactory. These educational facilities include; science laboratory; staffroom for teachers; school office; clerical staff; electricity facility; toilets for teachers; library and assembly ground. The size of some educational facilities was found satisfactory to some extent. Respondents responded that class rooms; furniture for students; trained teaching staff; scientific apparatus; audio-visual aids; books in library and fans in rooms were available to some extent. In addition, furniture for teachers was found sufficient but educational technologies and computers in laboratory were not available at all. Some factors were investigated which are responsible for poor availability of educational facilities. These factors include; no check and balance system; corruption; ineffective educational policies; poor implementation of educational policies; poor management and administration system and excess political interference.

5.5 RECOMMENDATIONS

1. It was investigated in the study that majority of the educational facilities were not properly available in the institutions at secondary level. As researches show that educational facilities play a crucial role in strengthening and enhancing overall educational achievement therefore it is strongly recommended that these facilities should be provided to each school on emergency basis.

2. It was revealed in the study that there were not available specially designed rooms for library, scientific equipments and educational technologies. Therefore it is recommended that specially designed rooms should be built for library, scientific equipments and educational technologies.

3. As it was found that the room heating and air conditioning facilities were not available in the schools which are obstacles in effective teaching learning process in winter and summer. That is why it is strongly recommended that room heaters and air conditions should be installed so that effective teaching learning process may be ensured. In addition, where gas facility is available, should be provided to schools.

4. It was found that computers and computer laboratories were not available in these institutions. Therefore it is recommended that computer laboratory should be constructed in each school. Computer laboratory should be fully equipped with computers and other necessary equipments.

5. It was investigated in the research study that facility of drinkable water inside the schools was not available. Therefore, it is recommended that fund should be allocated to each school so that they may be able to provide drinkable water easily.

6. It was also revealed that educational technologies were not available in these institutions therefore it is strongly recommended that educational technologies should be provided to each school. For this purpose, special funds should be provided by the government for purchasing educational technologies.

7. It was also investigated in this research study that majority of the schools lack of examination hall. Therefore it is strongly recommended that in each school, examination hall should be constructed immediately.

8. It is also recommended that educational policies should be implemented practically and effectively. Question No. 1: Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience / problem in your classroom/ institution. I selected this topic for research study, because I wanted to describe the importance of managing children at home. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The early home managing environment shows lasting effects up to secondary school, irrespective of the home stimulation provided during the later age phases, and such effects can be identified and separated from institutional effects (when appropriate multilevel models are employed for analysis). The different dimensions of the home managing environment show specific effects with developmental outcomes according to the theoretical assumptions of the home literacy and numeracy models. Moving beyond variable-centred approaches through adapting person-centred approaches captures stability and changes of the home managing environment across the preschool years and makes it possible to evaluate the importance of continued environmental stimulation. Collaboration between parents and educators should bridge the two managing environments home and preschool to promote children’s development adequately. But this does not mean that institutional influences are unimportant. On the contrary, there is a need to conduct further studies to explore how to better support children and adolescents who experience low-quality home managing environments at different ages. Some parents/carers through illness, disadvantage, absence, employment demands, or lifestyle may lack the capacity to support their children’s managing (e.g., Mistry, Benner, Biesanz, Clark, & Howes, 2010). More research is also needed to explore how far high-quality educational experiences at pre-school or school or from other education/youth providers might help to support such children and young people’s development and managing or ameliorate the consequences of poor-quality experiences. For example, Hall et al. (2019) have pointed out how children’s centres’ experiences can predict positive changes in the early years in England and predict reductions in behavioural disorders for very young children. Furthermore, Lehrl, Flöter, Wieduwilt, and Anders (in press) found that more engaged preschool teachers in terms of giving advice and support to the parents regarding how to promote the child at home predict positive changes which in turn predict language growth between the ages of 2 and 4. However, little is known about how or why such effects may be promoted. From a theoretical point of view, it has been claimed that “‘family engagement’ is the systematic inclusion of families as partners in children’s development, managing and wellness” (U.S. Department of Health and Education and Human Services & U.S. Department of Education, 2016, p. 1). Families are children’s first and most important teachers, advocates, and nurturers. Strong family engagement is central – not supplemental – to promoting: 1. Children’s healthy development and wellness. 2. Preparation for school 3. Seamlessly transitioning to kindergarten and primary school 4. Supporting academic achievement in primary school and beyond. (U.S. Department of Health and Education and Human Services & U.S. Department of Education, 2016, p. 1) RATIONALE OF THE STUDY This perspective reminds us of the importance of the managing for child development especially in the early years but also as a foundation that supports later educational success. With these crucial outcomes in mind, it is necessary to develop robust and evidenced ways to: (a) support parents in enhancing their children’s managing, (b) provide appropriate training and support for educational professionals in order to support parents to enhance their children’s managing at different ages before school entry and at later phases of education, and (c) find effective ways to do this both within settings and/or at home. To do so, we need more research and development studies including longitudinal studies, and intervention designs adopting an educational effectiveness perspective that follow up children across different phases of education to establish what models of intervention may be more effective and appropriate to assist different groups of parents/carers to better support their children’s managing across different ages and in different country contexts. Q.NO.2 I discussed my research study topic “MANAGING CHILDREN AT HOME” with colleagues and senior teachers. The importance of the topic was accepted by all the teachers and agreed that it has much importance in students’ learning process. I asked and discussed this topic with teachers. Every teacher shared their views about it. Following steps should be taken to solve problems. 1. Create household rules. You and your child can make these rules together. 2. Set a daily schedule or routine for your child. Try to break up long, unstructured periods into more structured activities. For example, free time could be broken up into time for: books and puzzles, arts and crafts, table top activities, etc. 3. Write out this schedule with your child, or make a picture schedule (on your computer or draw it out). 4. Motivate your child. Making your child do schoolwork at home can be challenging. It helps to have something that may motivate him/her to get their work done. You can do this by simply arranging your child’s schedule so that work comes before fun activities (e.g., “First schoolwork, then outside play”). 5. Rotate and organize your child’s toys. 6. Help your child get started on activities. 7. Put limits on screen time. Limiting screen time can be one of the biggest challenges for a family during breaks. Using timers, such as visual timers (there are many apps for this), can be helpful for setting these limits. 8. Manage sibling conflicts. Try scheduling some alone activities for each child periodically throughout the day. 9. Q.NO.3 10. Over the past three decades, a growing number of studies have provided empirical evidence that the home managing environment is an important predictor of differences in children’s academic and social development (e.g., most recently, Rose, Lehrl, Ebert, & Weinert, 2018; Tamis-LeMonda, Luo, McFadden, Bandel, & Vallotton, 2019). Children’s participation in managing activities, the quality of parent–child interactions, and the availability of managing materials are three key features of the home managing environment that help to support children’s educational development (Bradley & Corwyn, 2002). With the development of the home literacy model (Sénéchal & LeFevre, 2002) and the home numeracy model (Skwarchuck, Sowinski, & LeFevre, 2014), measures of the managing have become more detailed and developed in relation to specific outcome measures (e.g., Manolitsis, Georgiou, & Tziraki, 2013). These new approaches have improved our understanding of what happens in the home context regarding managing activities at home in different educational domains of children’s academic development. However, only a few studies have examined changes in the over time and its longer term effects on children’s outcomes (e.g., Sammons et al., 2015; Son & Morrison, 2010) or have been conducted within an educational effectiveness research perspective. 11. The separation of -process indicators (i.e., reading books) and structural indicators (i.e., socioeconomic status) across all papers takes into account the conclusions of earlier studies that suggest that what you do with your child is more important than who you are (Sylva, Melhuish, Sammons, Siraj-Blatchford, & Taggart, 2010). 12. The longitudinal nature of nearly most of the studies provides a more rigorous base for an educational effectiveness research perspective that is more appropriate to draw conclusions about the plausible direction of effects than is possible only if a cross-sectional perspective was employed. 13. The differentiation of child outcomes through all papers allows clear and precise statements regarding which aspects predict variation in particular kinds of child outcomes. 14. First, Toth and colleagues explore how various measures of children’s and adolescents’ collected at different ages (from pre-school through to adolescence) are statistically associated over time when the effects of both individual and family background characteristics are controlled, using data from a major longitudinal educational effectiveness study, the Effective Pre-school, Primary and Secondary Education Project (EPPSE 3-16) conducted in England. The paper investigates multiple dimensions of covering a wide range of parent–child interactive activities (reading and playing together), parent–child shared activities (using the computer or participating in sport), individual children activities (dance, painting, reading), computer use, managing and playing activities, but also parental managing support and supervision in adolescence. 15. Silinskas, Torppa, Lerkkanen, and Nurmi present results of research in Finland. They tested the home literacy model (HLM; Sénéchal & LeFevre, 2002, 2014) in the context of transparent Finnish language. First, they examine the extent to which the home managing environment measured at kindergarten age predicts the later development of children’s literacy- and readingrelated skills in primary school (i.e., Grades 1 and 2). Second, to expand the current understanding beyond unidirectional parent-to-child relation, the paper investigated possible antecedents of maternal teaching of reading and shared reading. Overall, the results provide support for the generalizability of the home literacy model to the orthographically transparent language in Finland. 16. Lehrl, Ebert, Blaurock, Rossbach, and Weinert studied how experiences in the early and secondary school home managing environment shape children’s reading and mathematical competencies in Germany. By drawing on a sample of the longitudinal study BiKSplus-3-13, the authors investigated the longer term associations of different dimensions of the early referring to the home literacy and numeracy model with reading and mathematical competencies at secondary school age. Results reveal that different dimensions of the early are associated with specific early competencies, and that early is associated with later . Both aspects in turn predict later competencies revealing the potential for longer term effects (similar to the conclusions of Toth et al. in England). The authors conclude that enriching the early years home managing environment might therefore be an important mean of increasing children’s math and reading competencies via two pathways: the early competences and the later . 17. Cohen and Anders present results from an intervention study in Germany, AquaFam, which examined the effects of a family support programme on children’s development. Positive relationships, interactions, and cooperation between preschool centres and parents are seen as crucial for encouraging interaction between children and teachers, and aid parents in providing stimulating s (Kluczniok & Roßbach, 2014). The paper, in contrast to others in the special issue, is not based on longitudinal data (although the intervention study will support this perspective). Instead, it investigated whether parent–preschool-cooperation activities are associated with children’s social and language skills. The authors found negative associations between cooperation activities and the receptive vocabulary skills of the children, but positive associations between cooperation activities and teacher-rated receptive language and prosocial skills of the children. The authors concluded that these results might be an indicator that parents and professionals are more likely to initiate cooperation when they are concerned about the children’s developmental progress but that teachers might rate their children as more competent when they are in more intense collaboration with the parents – without an objective base. 18. Q.NO.4 KEY TERMS 19. Key terms used in my research project 20. BEHAVIOUR : the way in which children acts or conducts , especially at home. 21. MANAGEMENT: the process of dealing with or controlling the children’s behaviour. 22. CHILDREN : THE children studying at various grades in school 23. Curriculum: the subjects studied in a school, college, etc. and what each subject includes. 24. Professional : relating to work that needs special training or education

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